Conjugated polymers provide a unique encompassing set of structurally tunable optical, electronic transport, and redox properties that allows their present and potential use in a host of applications which span, field effect transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells and photodetectors, electrochromism, along with batteries and supercapacitors. Processing of these materials is carried out using a variety of solution methods including spin-coating, spray-coating, blade-coating, slot die coating and ink jet printing. In this lecture, we will use the reversible redox switching of electron-rich polymers to demonstrate electrical charge storage, potentially useful in supercapacitor applications.1 The optical absorbance spectra of electron-rich pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers can be tuned to yield electrochromic materials of all colors that can be switched to highly transmissive forms as desired for absorptive/reflective (display type) and absorptive/transmissive (window type) devices. We will demonstrate how structural design and synthesis of fully conjugated polymers, along with mixing in polymer blends, has been used to complete the color palette of electrochromic polymers (ECPs) needed for subtractive color mixing.2 Colorimetric tuning (using the L*a*b* color space) using a combination of electron rich and poor units, in conjunction with employing subtle changes in steric strain or relaxation, allows for the enhancement of the neutral form color vibrancy, and the transmissivity of the oxidized forms. We have developed a set of fast switching, high contrast black and brown ECP blends. We use these brown blends to demonstrate the attractiveness of ECPs in window-type electrochromic devices (ECDs) as active materials in color changing eyewear.3 Finally, we combine our ECP and OPV technologies into possibilities for solar powered electrochromic windows.4
1. Österholm, A.M., Shen, D.E., Dyer, A.L., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 5, 13432-13440 (2013) “Optimization of PEDOT Films in Ionic Liquid Supercapacitors: Demonstration as a Power Source for Polymer Electrochromic Devices”
2. Dyer, A.L, Thompson, E.J., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 3, 1787-1795 (2011) “Completing the Color Palette with Spray Processable Polymer Electrochromics”
3. Österholm, A., Shen, D.E., Bulloch, R.H., Kerszulis, J., Kuepfert, M., Dyer, A., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 7, 1413-1421 (2015), “Four Shades of Brown: Tuning of Electrochromic Polymer Blends Towards High-Contrast Eyewear”
4. Dyer, A.L., Bulloch, R.H., Zhou, Y., Kippelen, B., Reynolds, J.R., Zhang, F. Adv. Mater., 26, 4895-4900 (2014), “A Vertically Integrated Solar-Powered Electrochromic Window for Energy Efficient Buildings”
Dr. John R. Reynolds is a Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology with expertise in polymer chemistry. He serves as a member of the Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE) and Director of the Georgia Tech Polymer Network (GTPN). His research interests have involved electrically conducting and electroactive conjugated polymers for over 35 years with work focused to the development of new polymers by manipulating their fundamental organic structure in order to control their optoelectronic and redox properties. His group has been heavily involved in developing new polyheterocycles for visible and infrared light electrochromism, along with light emission from polymer and composite LEDs (both visible and near-infrared) and light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Further work is directed to using organic polymers and oligomers in charge storing supercapacitors and photovoltaic cells. Reynolds obtained his M.S. (1982) and Ph.D. (1984) degrees from the University of Massachusetts in Polymer Science and Engineering, he has published over 350 peer-reviewed scientific papers, has 35 patents issued and ~10 patents pending, and served as co-editor of the “Handbook of Conducting Polymers” which was published in 2007. He serves on the editorial board for the journals ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ACS Central Science, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, and the Journal of Macromolecular Science, Chemistry. John has been married since October of 1986, has three children, and he and his wife make their home in Dunwoody GA. He can be reached by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or see http://ww2.chemistry.gatech.edu/reynolds/.